English/Language Arts Education

Mathematics Education

Predicting Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge (TPACK) Formation in Elementary Math Education

by Fitsum Abebe & Guy Trainin
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This study validated measures for elementary preservice teachers’ technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK) for elementary mathematics and evaluated the extent to which technology knowledge, pedagogy knowledge, and content knowledge were related to the formation of TPACK. The study was guided by the TPACK framework and adopted a widely used survey instrument. Participants were elementary preservice teachers at the end of a mathematics method class at a midwestern US teacher preparation program. The study used confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling to analyze measurement and predictive models. The confirmatory factor analysis validated a four-factor correlated measure of technological knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, content knowledge, and TPACK. The structural equation model indicated technological knowledge and pedagogical knowledge significantly predicted TPACK in elementary mathematics, but content knowledge did not. Preservice elementary school teachers indicated that their technological expertise was lower than their pedagogical knowledge, content knowledge, and TPACK. The results underscore the importance of strengthening TPACK in elementary teacher preparation programs with a focus on mathematics, enhancing the proficiency of preservice teachers in utilizing technology for effective mathematics teaching. This is particularly critical due to rapid technological change and shifts in students’ needs and competencies.

Social Studies Education

“I, for One, Welcome Our New Computer Overlords”: Using Artificial Intelligence as a Lesson Planning Resource for Social Studies

by Christopher H. Clark & Cathryn van Kessel
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Due to the introduction and rapid ubiquity of artificial intelligence (AI) and AI-integrated programs that can be used by students and teachers, educational scholarship evaluating the capabilities of AI is needed. This study evaluates the abilities of three prominent AI programs —ChatGPT, Microsoft’s Bing, and Google’s Bard — to create high school lesson plans on the subjects of Martin Luther King, Jr., the Indian Removal Act, and climate change. The authors judge the quality of the lessons’ content based on scholarship in the education field and document the process of prompting the AI to produce lessons more in line with these criteria.

Objects to Think With

Animation Machines

by Glen Bull, Jo Watts, Rachel Gibson, Ryan Novitski, Debra Shapiro & Elaine Wolfe
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A series of models in the Educational CAD Model Library can be used to reconstruct mechanical animation machines such as the Praxinoscope and related animation mechanisms. Hands-on experiences can be used to enhance understanding of historical invention processes and related science concepts. Foundational concepts of visual perception are discussed. The evolution of animation from simple image sequences to modern-day digital animation is described. Classroom implementations in which students build animation machines, connecting theoretical knowledge with hands-on experience, are reviewed. This educational approach not only brings historical inventions to life but also solidifies students’ understanding of scientific principles, contributing to the broader curriculum in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education.

Current Practice

A Teacher-Librarian Collaborative Experience: Perspectives of Preservice Teachers and School Librarian Candidates

by Michelle Giles, Sheila Baker & Jana Willis
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This mixed methods study explored the impact of a collaborative experience on perceptions of school librarian candidates (SLCs) and preservice teacher candidates (PTCs) as they worked to integrate technology into lesson plans effectively. The group under investigation consisted of 83 PTCs in the teacher preparation program who were enrolled in selected sections of a required technology course and graduate students in a School of Library and Information Science preparation program at the same institution. Forty of the PTCs were part of the control group and 43 were in the treatment group, which received collaborative support from the SLCs. One important finding is that PTCs perceived SLCs as valuable resources for integrating technologies, particularly for designing lesson plans that integrated technology. Additionally, both PTCs and SLCs realized the importance of teacher-librarian collaboration (TLC) in their future campus roles. A key recommendation is for teacher education programs to embed opportunities for TLC experiences for improving PTCs’ technology integration and lesson planning.

Preservice Teachers Designing Assistive Educational Robots Using Computational Thinking

by Ann Musgrove, Jillian Powers, Mohammad Azhar & Cristine Yao
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This study examined how an online instructional module that included an unplugged robot design activity integrated computational thinking (CT), assistive technology (AT), and universal design principles into a preservice teacher education class. The research focused on how this module shaped understanding, attitudes, and comfort levels about integrating these concepts into their future classrooms. The population of this study consisted of 59 students enrolled in an upper-division online undergraduate instructional technology course over three semesters. The module was developed collaboratively by education and computer science faculty members by infusing activities adapted from an unplugged robot design lesson created for introductory computer science students (Imberman et al., 2017). The module culminated with an assignment in which students used paper and pencil to design a robot that solved an educational problem that a teacher may face in a classroom that also contained features to make it accessible to students with special needs. The module increased knowledge of CT and comfort with teaching the topic in their future classroom. Participants gained knowledge about AT but said they were not comfortable using AT in future classrooms.